In the textile industry, the weave is a method of interlacing the weft and warp to form a fabric. Several types of textile weave exist, both basic and fancy varieties. Today we will discuss the basic weaves which are also the most commonly used weave- Plain Weave, Twill Weave & the Satin Weave.
Plain Weave Properties:
Plain weave fabric is generally soft, strong and tightly woven, which makes it durable and resistant to shedding, however, it is not as strong as the twill weave. They're widely used in lightweight clothing because they add comfort and softness to the fabric without adding bulk or weight.
They can be made out of any material that can withstand being woven into a piece of fabric (such as cotton or wool). However, you'll find it easier to find plain weave fabrics in natural fibres than synthetic ones because those tend to be more durable over time and during washing.
Its handloom setup involves the use of just 2 harnesses. The wet yarn goes under and over 1 warp across the width of the fabric. The number of shuttles used depends on the number of colours decided for the weft or the filling yarn.
They're very versatile in appearance because they can be used in many different ways. They can be used for many different purposes including clothing, upholstery, drapery and homeware/home furnishings.
Twill is one of the most common types of weave, and is characterized by having a diagonal pattern in which the warp threads run at right angles to the weft threads. In fact, the name "twill" comes from a German term for "diagonal" because the diagonal ribs run along both sides of the fabric.
Example- Denim Twill, Diamond Twill
The handloom set up for weaving a twill weave fabric requires a minimum of 3 harnesses. The number of shuttles use depends on the number of colours decided for the weft or the filling yarn.
There are two types of twill weave:
-Regular Twill: this is characterized by an uninterrupted diagonal line on the face and the back. It can be further subdivided on the basis of the angle of diagonal lines, the direction of the diagonal lines and the Evenness of the face and back.
-Irregular Twill: This is characterised by the interruption of the diagonal line as it changes the direction of the path to create interesting effects and patterns. Example- Diamond Twill, Curved Twill, Zig zag or Herringbone Twill, Pointed Twill.
Twill weaves are often used for clothing and sportswear, but also for bedding, tablecloths and other textiles. The diagonal lines give a very nice look to the fabric. The twill weave has a lot of stretch and gives more comfort than plain fabrics.
The third basic weave is the Satin Weave. A satin weave involves predominantly warp yarns on the surface. This appears as uninterrupted and is called floats which are tucked in by the weft yarn. These floats result in a smooth, glossy surface finish and a slippery feel. It can be made from silk, wool or cotton.
Satin Weave Properties:
Satin Weave Fabrics have a softer feel than other weaves, especially if they are made from silk or cotton yarns. They are usually more comfortable to wear than other types of woven fabric because they don't constrict your body as much as other fabrics can. They also tend to be cooler than most fabrics because they don't trap air between their fibres, as much as other types of weaving do.
The float length varies between 4 to 11 and the number of harnesses required varies from 5 to 12 (float length+1= no. Of harnesses needed). The number of shuttles used depends on the number of colours decided for the weft or the filling yarn.
Satin Weave Uses:
Satin Weaves are commonly used in shirts and dresses because they give a smooth look without being too stiff or tight against the body. This makes them ideal for wearing under low-cut blouses or dresses with straps that show off your shoulders without making you feel uncomfortable or exposed while you move around at work or social events. They can also be used on more formal pieces such as suits and jackets because they give off an expensive look without being too flashy.
The different textile weaves differ in the structure or pattern in which the warp and weft are interlaced. This structure is what lends the resulting fabric its characteristic features. Furthermore, the feasibility or the appropriate product that can be made out of fabric is based on these properties. Thus, we see how the different types of weaves have an impact on the end product & understanding the weave structure helps us in choosing the right fabric for our projects.
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